Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two categories. The first is reconstructive surgery which includes craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. The other is cosmetic or aesthetic surgery.[1] While reconstructive surgery aims to reconstruct a part of the body or improve its functioning, cosmetic surgery aims at improving the appearance of it. Both of these techniques are used throughout the world.
In the term "plastic surgery," the adjective plastic implies sculpting and/or reshaping, which is derived from the Greek πλαστική (τέχνη), plastikē (tekhnē), "the art of modelling" of malleable flesh.[2] This meaning in English is seen as early as 1598.[3] The surgical definition of "plastic" first appeared in 1839, preceding the modern "engineering material made from petroleum" sense of plastic (coined by Leo Baekeland in 1909) by 70 years.[4]
How can you safely do a chemical peel at home? A number of at-home chemical peels, masks, exfoliates and wipe products are now available, including those that contain many of the same ingredients as the peels used in doctors’ offices. But it’s key to purchase a quality product, to read ingredients carefully, to test your skin first and to give your skin time to heal between treatments.

The chemical solution for superficial peels — also known as light peels or lunchtime peels — is typically alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) or beta hydroxy acid. AHAs are naturally occurring compounds found in papayas, milk, sugar cane and other foods. Healing time for a superficial chemical peel is often between 1 and 7 days. Superficial peels are the most affordable and may range from under $100 to over $200, depending on the provider.
A ventral hernia occurs when part of the intestines push through a tear in the abdominal wall. These tears are sometimes the result of an incision made during a prior surgery. Either of these conditions can inhibit blood flow, which can in turn complicate the healing process. During a patient's initial consultation, I conduct my own physical analysis of the patient and a review of his or her medical history to determine if either of these conditions are present.
"I tell my patients that they will immediately notice a difference in their abdominal area, but that it will take two to three months for most of the swelling to subside and to get their final result," says Dr. Pat Pazmino, a Miami plastic surgeon, in a RealSelf Q&A. "Sometimes, some swelling persists over the suture line - this will also go down as your body continues to heal across the scar."
“Every chemical peel has the potential risk for complications, such as pigmentation changes or scarring,” says Dr. Jordan Cain, a Frisco, Texas facial plastic surgeon, in a chemical peel Q&A. “These risks are much higher when a chemical peel is performed by someone without proper training and experience in skin care and chemical peels in particular.”
“We want you up walking right away after surgery,” says Jack. “This is crucial because it’s the most effective way to reduce risk of blood clot formation. It will also help keep your body from becoming stiff and tight, keep the tissues soft and relaxed, and will speed along resolution of swelling. On the flip side though, don’t do too much, too early.”
Medium-depth peels — Helps to remove facial lines, scars and birthmarks, but can cause side effects and take longer to heal from. Most people will see at least some results after one treatment, but multiple treatments are usually needed for full effects. Some dermatologists now recommend mild to medium peels that use multiple acids rather than one single acid at a higher strength, as multiple acids can lead to less irritation.
A tummy tuck almost always involves the removal of excess skin, fat, and other tissue, along with the tightening of the underlying abdominal muscles. It requires both internal and external healing. Therefore, it is especially important for your surgeon to make certain that any risk of excessive bleeding and other complications during surgery is minimized.

This wonderful client wanted to look less tired and angry. She was treated with a full face rejuvenation technique, called Soft Lift, in one session. The Soft Lift combines the use of Botox and Juvederm filler to give her an overall refreshed and happier appearance. The 2nd photo was taken 1 week after her treatment to show that filler looks better with time. The 3rd photo was taken 1 month after the treatment. She loves her more fresher, youthful look!


A study published in 2009 in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology found that Botox may also improve a person’s mood. The theory there? The less you scowl — a facial expression that’s not easy to make with a smoothed brow — the more upbeat you feel. People who like it (some of my friends included) say it’s simply one item on the menu of ways to stay youthful looking, especially in a competitive workforce.

Hand surgery is concerned with acute injuries and chronic diseases of the hand and wrist, correction of congenital malformations of the upper extremities, and peripheral nerve problems (such as brachial plexus injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome). Hand surgery is an important part of training in plastic surgery, as well as microsurgery, which is necessary to replant an amputated extremity. The hand surgery field is also practiced by orthopedic surgeons and general surgeons. Scar tissue formation after surgery can be problematic on the delicate hand, causing loss of dexterity and digit function if severe enough. There have been cases of surgery to women's hands in order to correct perceived flaws to create the perfect engagement ring photo.[20]
Your doctor may numb the area with a topical anesthetic, especially if you’re receiving a deep peel. For deep peels, your doctor may also use a regional anesthetic, which will numb large areas. They are particularly likely to do this if you’re having your face and neck treated. For deep peels, you’ll also be given an IV, and your heart rate will be closely monitored.
In terms of the steps to be followed immediately after the chemical peel is applied and it peels off, the need to apply a cold compress is essential to cool down the skin which has had the blisters. In addition, the skin remains sensitive for a few days and in addition to protecting the skin from being exposed to sunlight, suitable sunscreen lotion has to be used. If there are any damages to the skin and bandaging has to be done that has also to be done. Ultimately, the skin has to be taken care of and the type of skin differs from individual to individual and depending on the type of skin, suitable skin products may be prescribed by the doctor for ongoing care.
With breast implants, a routine screening mammography and self-examinations for breast cancer will be more difficult. Ask your doctor to help you distinguish the implant from your breast tissue. Symptoms of a ruptured implant may be hard knots or lumps surrounding the implant or in the armpit, change or loss of size or shape of the breast or implant, pain, tingling, swelling, numbness, burning, or hardening. Tell your doctor of these symptoms and remove ruptured implants.
On average, the cost of a chemical peel will depend on where you live, the medical provider you plan on using and the type of chemical peel applied.  With these factors in place, the average session can cost $150 to $400; however, to see desirable results, the average patient, according to our research pays a total of $1,800 to $3,700.  These costs will vary depending on your personal situation since some patients may see results after a few sessions, whereas others may need multiple sessions. Refer to our table below to see what the most popular branded chemical peels will cost per session.  This data was gathered from credible doctor answers we had found online such as this RealSelf.com forum thread.
A study published in 2009 in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology found that Botox may also improve a person’s mood. The theory there? The less you scowl — a facial expression that’s not easy to make with a smoothed brow — the more upbeat you feel. People who like it (some of my friends included) say it’s simply one item on the menu of ways to stay youthful looking, especially in a competitive workforce.
Common side effects are bruising and swelling. Rarely, there is “serum sickness,” which manifests as flu-like symptoms that subside in a few hours, says Mulholland. “A dreaded complication is that the Botox travels through fatty tissues to muscles it wasn’t intended to block — like a muscle of the eyelid, which leads to ptosis (droopy eye), or the muscles that move the eyeball, leading to double vision.” He says these happen to less than one per cent of patients and go away within two weeks. The Botox Cosmetic website states asthma symptoms and inability to swallow have also been reported.
A chemical peel is a cosmetic treatment (typically not covered by insurance) in which an esthetician or doctor applies a chemical solution to your skin, most often the skin on your face. After several hours or days, the solution blisters your skin’s top layer, allowing the damaged skin to peel away, revealing smoother skin underneath. Chemical peels are designed to reduce fine lines around the eyes and mouth, improve the appearance of acne scars, treat sun damage and age wrinkles, reduce age spots and other dark skin patches, and improve the overall look and feel of the skin.
During World War I he worked as a medical minder with the Royal Army Medical Corps. After working with the renowned French oral and maxillofacial surgeon Hippolyte Morestin on skin graft, he persuaded the army's chief surgeon, Arbuthnot-Lane, to establish a facial injury ward at the Cambridge Military Hospital, Aldershot, later upgraded to a new hospital for facial repairs at Sidcup in 1917. There Gillies and his colleagues developed many techniques of plastic surgery; more than 11,000 operations were performed on more than 5,000 men (mostly soldiers with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds).[citation needed]After the war, Gillies developed a private practice with Rainsford Mowlem, including many famous patients, and travelled extensively to promote his advanced techniques worldwide.
“Every chemical peel has the potential risk for complications, such as pigmentation changes or scarring,” says Dr. Jordan Cain, a Frisco, Texas facial plastic surgeon, in a chemical peel Q&A. “These risks are much higher when a chemical peel is performed by someone without proper training and experience in skin care and chemical peels in particular.”

Some people with a particular type of skin can face issues immediately after taking a Chemical Peels treatment for their skin. Some of them can even see some swelling and breaking of the skin surface that can take a few days to recover fully. Similarly, there are instances of alteration in the colour of the skin after the peel withers off. There have also been reports of scarring on the skin surface following a Chemical Peels treatment. It must, however, be added here that almost all these after effects are of temporary nature and they are generally treated and rectified without causing any permanent damage.
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