Cosmetic surgery is a voluntary or elective surgery that is performed on normal parts of the body with the only purpose of improving a person’s appearance and/or removing signs of aging. In 2014, nearly 16 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States alone.[22] The number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United States has almost doubled since the start of the century. 92% of cosmetic procedures were performed on women in 2014, up from 88% in 2001.[23] Nearly 12 million cosmetic procedures were performed in 2007, with the five most common surgeries being breast augmentation, liposuction, breast reduction, eyelid surgery and abdominoplasty. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery looks at the statistics for 34 different cosmetic procedures. Nineteen of the procedures are surgical, such as rhinoplasty or facelift. The nonsurgical procedures include Botox and laser hair removal. In 2010, their survey revealed that there were 9,336,814 total procedures in the United States. Of those, 1,622,290 procedures were surgical (p. 5). They also found that a large majority, 81%, of the procedures were done on Caucasian people (p. 12).[24] The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) estimates that more than 333,000 cosmetic procedures were performed on patients 18 years of age or younger in the US in 2005 compared to approx. 14,000 in 1996. This is significant because it encourages younger people to continue these procedures later in life.[25] The increased use of cosmetic procedures crosses racial and ethnic lines in the U.S., with increases seen among African-Americans, Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans as well as Caucasian Americans. In Europe, the second largest market for cosmetic procedures, cosmetic surgery is a $2.2 billion business.[26] Of 1191 UK newspaper articles, 89% used the term ‘plastic surgery’ in the context of cosmetic surgery. This is significant as it shows the frequency in which the western world portrays cosmetic surgery.[27] In Asia, cosmetic surgery has become more popular, and countries such as China and India have become Asia's biggest cosmetic surgery markets.[28] South Korea is also rising in popularity due to their expertise in facial bone surgeries. The first publication by a team of South Korean surgeons on facial bone contouring surgeries was published illustrating various surgery methods used for facial bone contouring surgeries.[29]
Chemical peels are cosmetic treatments that can be applied to the face, hands, and neck. They’re used to improve the appearance or feel of the skin. During this procedure, chemical solutions will be applied to the area being treated, which causes the skin to exfoliate and eventually peel off. Once this happens, the new skin underneath is often smoother, appears less wrinkled, and may have less damage.
Children often face medical issues very different from the experiences of an adult patient. Many birth defects or syndromes present at birth are best treated in childhood, and pediatric plastic surgeons specialize in treating these conditions in children. Conditions commonly treated by pediatric plastic surgeons include craniofacial anomalies, Syndactyly[21] (webbing of the fingers and toes), Polydactyly (excess fingers and toes at birth), cleft lip and palate, and congenital hand deformities.
I needed very little convincing before making my way down to the Cadogan Clinic, one of the very best locations in London (might I add) to speak to Nurse Libbie Wallace, a master in her field. After filling in a short consultation form, Nurse Libbie asks me how old I am. After replying 28, she chuckles a little, but continues… I’m not the youngest client she’s had walk through the door, but she does tell me that she would only ever treat those that actually can benefit from the treatment, ‘It’s important that I manage patients expectations’.
Post treatment I was a left a little red and blotchy, so I cancelled any meetings I had straight after. Although the redness soon faded I was left with a few tiny pin prick points. I am told that bruising is common, but it all depends on how sensitive your skin is. I was also left with a slight headache, almost like I’d been wearing a swim cap for a few days. This too didn’t last longer than a few hours, and wasn’t anything that two paracetamol couldn’t fix. If you do experience a headache for longer than 48 hours, or any other symptoms like nausea or visual disturbances (although rare) you are advised to contact your practitioner.

During recovery, follow your doctor’s postop instructions faithfully. They’ll give you specific instructions for how often to wash your face and moisturize, and which products you should use to do so. Try to stay out of the sun until your skin has healed, and avoid using makeup or other cosmetics until your doctor gives you the go-ahead. You can use ice packs for 20 minutes at a time, or a cool fan, to help relieve discomfort at home.

Some people with a particular type of skin can face issues immediately after taking a Chemical Peels treatment for their skin. Some of them can even see some swelling and breaking of the skin surface that can take a few days to recover fully. Similarly, there are instances of alteration in the colour of the skin after the peel withers off. There have also been reports of scarring on the skin surface following a Chemical Peels treatment. It must, however, be added here that almost all these after effects are of temporary nature and they are generally treated and rectified without causing any permanent damage.
“Since many blood vessels are cut during a tummy tuck procedure, wound healing can be compromised in some areas of the abdomen. This becomes a more serious issue in smokers because the vessels that remain can suddenly close, with sometimes detrimental results,” says Grossman. “It is absolutely essential that patients quit smoking for at least four to six weeks prior to surgery so it does not affect their recovery.”
During a medium chemical peel, your doctor will use a gauze, special sponge, or a cotton-tipped applicator to apply the chemical solution to your face. This may contain glycolic acid or trichloroacetic acid. A blue color may be added to the trichloroacetic acid, commonly known as a blue peel. The skin will begin to whiten, and your doctor will apply a cool compress to the skin. You may feel stinging or burning for up to 20 minutes. No neutralizing solution is needed, though they may give you a hand-held fan to cool your skin. If you’ve had the blue peel you will have a blue coloring of your skin that may last for several days after the peel.
This busy mother of 3 had deep lines and wrinkles and wanted to look less tired and aged. When she raised her eyebrows, her forehead lines were prominent and she was discouraged by the wrinkles. She also heard, quite often, that she looked “tired”. She was treated with Dysport (like Botox) and Restylane filler with a full face rejuvenation technique for a fresher, more youthful look. The hollowness in the under eye (tear trough) area and the lines around her mouth are almost gone. She loves looking more refreshed and less tired!
Deep chemical peels are the strongest of the facial peels. The chemical used for deep chemical peels is phenol acid. Deep peels are used to treat coarse facial wrinkles, blotches caused by aging or sun exposure, and pre-cancerous growths. While a deep chemical peel produces the most dramatic, longest-lasting results, the procedure takes longer than other peels (one to two hours) and requires the most healing time. Phenol acid is typically used only for facial peels. Because a deep chemical peel may cause permanent lightening of the skin, prospective patients should seek advice from a qualified cosmetic dermatologist before undergoing the procedure.
“Believe it or not, patients who are overweight are malnourished. What that means is that their capacity to heal is very poor,” says Grossman. “Patients who are malnourished have more seromas or fluid accumulations. In fact, about 50% of all patients will form a seroma when not stabilized nutritionally. So, at my practice we have an extensive approach to nutrition before and after the surgery.”
Before your procedure, you’ll first have a consultation with the skin care specialist. During this visit, they’ll help you determine what the best treatment option is for you. They’ll let you know the details about the specific peel you’ll be getting, and they’ll ask about anything that could interfere with the peel. This may include whether you’ve taken acne medication, and information about whether or not you scar easily.
She advises me that there are many conspiracies around botox- staying up right for more than two hours, is false for starters. ‘The solution takes 20 minutes to settle in your muscles, so I do advise you to stay upright for then, any longer wont make a difference’. She does however advise me not to undertake exercise that’s too strenuous or hot following the treatment (fine by me) and to carefully wash my face when I get home, not scrubbing or rubbing too hard.
“Occasionally, patients will certainly engage in activities that slow their recovery or cause complications. Probably the most impactful factor is not following the surgeon’s instructions. This is a big one,” says Jack. “We make postoperative instructions for a reason — to protect the patient and help ensure they heal well and have a good cosmetic outcome.”
Dr. Robert L. Shenker and Dr. Stephanie Ma are Royal College-certified specialists at The Cosmetic Surgery Clinic in Kitchener-Waterloo. The team of surgeons serves patients from Guelph, Cambridge, and London, Ontario, specializing in cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery, surgical and non-surgical facial rejuvenation, and body contouring procedures.

In the term "plastic surgery," the adjective plastic implies sculpting and/or reshaping, which is derived from the Greek πλαστική (τέχνη), plastikē (tekhnē), "the art of modelling" of malleable flesh.[2] This meaning in English is seen as early as 1598.[3] The surgical definition of "plastic" first appeared in 1839, preceding the modern "engineering material made from petroleum" sense of plastic (coined by Leo Baekeland in 1909) by 70 years.[4]
‘You’ll start to see an effect after 3-5 days’, instructs cosmetic doctor Rita Rakus, ‘however it may take two weeks for maximum results to kick in’. For me, my forehead had less movement after day three, but it wasn't until a full week after the treatment that it felt completely immobile. It’s definitely a strange sensation as you go to lift your brows…but nothing moves.
Arm LiftBody ContouringBody LiftBotulinum ToxinBreast AugmentationBreast Implant Removal & ExchangeBreast LiftBreast ReconstructionBreast ReductionBrow LiftButtock Lift with AugmentationChin AugmentationCleft Lip and PalateDermal FillersEar SurgeryEyelid SurgeryFaceliftGynecomastia SurgeryHair TransplantLip AugmentationLiposuctionRhinoplastyThigh LiftTummy Tuck

"I tell my patients that they will immediately notice a difference in their abdominal area, but that it will take two to three months for most of the swelling to subside and to get their final result," says Dr. Pat Pazmino, a Miami plastic surgeon, in a RealSelf Q&A. "Sometimes, some swelling persists over the suture line - this will also go down as your body continues to heal across the scar."


“Unwanted side effects are hyper or hypopigmentation, swelling, or infection,” says Dr. Davin Lim, a Brisbane, Queensland dermatologist, in a RealSelf Q&A. “Expected side effects are redness, flaking, and dryness, and can be easily managed. You can manage these risks by doing the following: sun protection, prepping your skin before chemical peels, avoiding active ingredients one to two days before treatment, and consulting with an experienced cosmetic provider and following aftercare instructions.”
With breast implants, a routine screening mammography and self-examinations for breast cancer will be more difficult. Ask your doctor to help you distinguish the implant from your breast tissue. Symptoms of a ruptured implant may be hard knots or lumps surrounding the implant or in the armpit, change or loss of size or shape of the breast or implant, pain, tingling, swelling, numbness, burning, or hardening. Tell your doctor of these symptoms and remove ruptured implants.
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British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasties being performed by Indian methods.[13] Reports on Indian rhinoplasty performed by a Kumhar Vaidya were published in the Gentleman's Magazine by 1794.[13] Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods.[13] Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the Western world in the year of 1815.[14] Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western world.[14]
In 1465, Sabuncu's book, description, and classification of hypospadias was more informative and up to date. Localization of urethral meatus was described in detail. Sabuncuoglu also detailed the description and classification of ambiguous genitalia.[citation needed] In mid-15th-century Europe, Heinrich von Pfolspeundt described a process "to make a new nose for one who lacks it entirely, and the dogs have devoured it" by removing skin from the back of the arm and suturing it in place. However, because of the dangers associated with surgery in any form, especially that involving the head or face, it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries that such surgery became common.
If you’re interested, talk to your physician about getting a referral. (If I were to go for it, I’d also do my own research, maybe asking a friend who’d had a positive experience — and whose results I could see — for the name of her doctor.) Then check with your provincial college of physicians for disciplinary issues, the Canadian Medical Protective Association for malpractice issues and RateMDs.com to see what other patients say about specific doctors. Ask for Botox before and after photos, and get a sense of how long the doctor has been administering Botox. (Are are a few other questions to ask your doctor before taking the plunge.)
Most SkinMedica® products are intended to meet the FDA’s definition of a cosmetic product, an article applied to the human body to cleanse, beautify, promote attractiveness, and alter appearances. These SkinMedica® products are not intended to be drug products that diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or condition. These products have not been approved by the FDA, and the statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
With breast implants, a routine screening mammography and self-examinations for breast cancer will be more difficult. Ask your doctor to help you distinguish the implant from your breast tissue. Symptoms of a ruptured implant may be hard knots or lumps surrounding the implant or in the armpit, change or loss of size or shape of the breast or implant, pain, tingling, swelling, numbness, burning, or hardening. Tell your doctor of these symptoms and remove ruptured implants.
This content is strictly the opinion of Dr. Josh Axe and is for informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of medical advice or treatment from a personal physician. All readers/viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions. Neither Dr. Axe nor the publisher of this content takes responsibility for possible health consequences of any person or persons reading or following the information in this educational content. All viewers of this content, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should consult their physicians before beginning any nutrition, supplement or lifestyle program.
Applying Chemical Peels is a treatment done to make the skin’s appearance better, smoother and softer. Where the skin is constantly exposed to direct sunlight and becomes dry or if wrinkles start forming due to normal ageing process also Chemical Peels can be applied and the skin restored to a much better condition. Some persons also use the Chemical Peels to treat specific conditions like acne or scars on the skin. While acne can be treated, the scars may not disappear completely, but there will definitely be an improvement in the skin quality and the difference will show.
“Unwanted side effects are hyper or hypopigmentation, swelling, or infection,” says Dr. Davin Lim, a Brisbane, Queensland dermatologist, in a RealSelf Q&A. “Expected side effects are redness, flaking, and dryness, and can be easily managed. You can manage these risks by doing the following: sun protection, prepping your skin before chemical peels, avoiding active ingredients one to two days before treatment, and consulting with an experienced cosmetic provider and following aftercare instructions.”
So what is the ideal age for botox? ‘There is no recommended age’, Wallace says, and Victoria Spyrou, the injectables expert at EF MediSpa agrees, ‘The recommended age differs because everyone’s muscles present differently. If someone at the age of 21 has visible dynamic lines that are causing a problem, then I will treat that person, however, if another 21-year-old comes in without any visible lines – I would decline to treat them.’

During a pre-op consultation, you should be prepared to discuss your medication and supplement regimen in great detail. You should also be prepared to talk about your own medical history. Both of these aspects have to be reviewed in order to assess your risk of developing potentially dangerous blood clots and bleeding excessively during surgery. If you use tobacco, you must also understand that you will be expected to stop nicotine intake of all kinds at least three months prior to surgery, and continue to abstain during recovery.


After a chemical peel, skin is temporarily more sensitive to the sun, so wear sunscreen every day. It should say "broad-spectrum" on the label, meaning it protects against the sun's UVA and UVB rays. Also, it should be a physical sunscreen and be above SPF 30. Limit your time in the sun, especially between the hours of 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., and wear a wide-brimmed hat. 

BDD is a disorder resulting in the sufferer becoming "preoccupied with what they regard as defects in their bodies or faces." Alternatively, where there is a slight physical anomaly, then the person’s concern is markedly excessive.[39] While 2% of people suffer from body dysmorphic disorder in the United States, 15% of patients seeing a dermatologist and cosmetic surgeons have the disorder. Half of the patients with the disorder who have cosmetic surgery performed are not pleased with the aesthetic outcome. BDD can lead to suicide in some of its sufferers. While many with BDD seek cosmetic surgery, the procedures do not treat BDD, and can ultimately worsen the problem. The psychological root of the problem is usually unidentified; therefore causing the treatment to be even more difficult. Some say that the fixation or obsession with correction of the area could be a sub-disorder such as anorexia or muscle dysmorphia.[40] The increased use of body and facial reshaping applications such as Snapchat and Facetune have been identified as a potential triggers of BDD. Recently, a phenomenon referred to as 'Snapchat dysmorphia' has appeared to describe people who request surgery to resemble the edited version of themselves as they appear through Snapchat Filters.[41]
The current semantic diversity of the word plastic has a long history of development. Essentially, there are two ways of using this term.[5] In its original sense plastic relates to formation or shaping of matter, i.e. to plastic art. Plastic can also be used figuratively in the meaning of formation of non-material things (e.g. writing a poem, creating a piece of music, and so on), i.e. in the meaning of the power to create. Both notions have been around for thousands of years. The origin of the dual history of the materialistic and philosophical use of plastic can be traced back to the ancient Greek craft of pottery and mythology, respectively. Wider textual use of the term plastic began with Pliny the Elder’s (23 – 79 AD) Plastice, a chapter in his Natural History. The semantic flourish of plastic started only at the end of the 18th century when Johann Gottfried Herder introduced the concept of “plastic sense” in his aesthetic essay Plastik (Sculpture) of 1778.[5]

After being applied to the skin, chemical peels intentionally make the skin blister and then peel, although chemical peels are now considered safer than in years past and are less likely to leave skin feeling “raw.” (3) The purpose of peels is to remove dull surface skin cells, which typically leads to an improvement in fine lines, acne, discoloration and more.
The chemical solution for body chemical peels is typically comprised of a combination of trichloroacetic acid (the main ingredient in a medium-depth skin peel) and glycolic acid (the main ingredient of a mild peel). The solution for body chemical peels is typically formulated to be slightly stronger than the chemical solution used for light or medium facial skin peels, though it is milder than the phenol solution used for deep skin peels.
The chemical solution for superficial peels — also known as light peels or lunchtime peels — is typically alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) or beta hydroxy acid. AHAs are naturally occurring compounds found in papayas, milk, sugar cane and other foods. Healing time for a superficial chemical peel is often between 1 and 7 days. Superficial peels are the most affordable and may range from under $100 to over $200, depending on the provider.
There are several factors that determine the cost of a chemical peel. The most significant difference in cost is related to the type of chemical peel that is being performed. Superficial peels such as those containing salicylic acid or glycolic acid are typically much cheaper than the stronger medium- and deep-depth chemical peels, like the TCA peel and the phenol-croton oil peel. These stronger peels are often performed under anesthesia, which contributes an added cost, and may take more time to perform and manage after the procedure is complete. However, the results of these stronger peels are usually permanent, whereas a more superficial peel may require several repeat treatments to achieve an adequate result. The severity of the skin issues to be treated, such as the deepness of the wrinkles or the amount of pigmentation changes, will be factors in determining which treatment is right for you. I recommend that you schedule a consultation with a board-certified physician who specializes in facial skin care and can evaluate your particular concerns to recommend the treatment that is most effective for you within your proposed budget. Remember, when it comes to your face, cost is a consideration, but the most important thing is that you find someone who will provide you with safe and effective treatment! 
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