“Believe it or not, patients who are overweight are malnourished. What that means is that their capacity to heal is very poor,” says Grossman. “Patients who are malnourished have more seromas or fluid accumulations. In fact, about 50% of all patients will form a seroma when not stabilized nutritionally. So, at my practice we have an extensive approach to nutrition before and after the surgery.”
Treatments for the plastic repair of a broken nose are first mentioned in the Edwin Smith Papyrus,[7] a transcription of an Ancient Egyptian medical text, one of the oldest known surgical treatises, dated to the Old Kingdom from 3000 to 2500 BC.[8] Reconstructive surgery techniques were being carried out in India by 800 BC.[9] Sushruta was a physician who made important contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in 6th century BC.[10] The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka, originally in Sanskrit, were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD.[11] The Arabic translations made their way into Europe via intermediaries.[11] In Italy, the Branca family[12] of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.[11]
“Unwanted side effects are hyper or hypopigmentation, swelling, or infection,” says Dr. Davin Lim, a Brisbane, Queensland dermatologist, in a RealSelf Q&A. “Expected side effects are redness, flaking, and dryness, and can be easily managed. You can manage these risks by doing the following: sun protection, prepping your skin before chemical peels, avoiding active ingredients one to two days before treatment, and consulting with an experienced cosmetic provider and following aftercare instructions.” 

The most commonly reported side effects with JUVÉDERM® injectable gels included injection-site redness, swelling, pain, tenderness, firmness, lumps/bumps, bruising, discoloration, and itching. For JUVÉDERM VOLBELLA® XC, dryness was also reported. For JUVÉDERM VOLUMA® XC, most side effects were moderate and lasted 2 to 4 weeks. For JUVÉDERM® XC, JUVÉDERM VOLLURE™ XC, and JUVÉDERM® Ultra XC injectable gels, most side effects were mild or moderate and lasted 14 days or less. For JUVÉDERM VOLBELLA® XC, most side effects were mild or moderate and lasted 30 days or less.
She advises me that there are many conspiracies around botox- staying up right for more than two hours, is false for starters. ‘The solution takes 20 minutes to settle in your muscles, so I do advise you to stay upright for then, any longer wont make a difference’. She does however advise me not to undertake exercise that’s too strenuous or hot following the treatment (fine by me) and to carefully wash my face when I get home, not scrubbing or rubbing too hard.

Dr. Robert L. Shenker and Dr. Stephanie Ma are Royal College-certified specialists at The Cosmetic Surgery Clinic in Kitchener-Waterloo. The team of surgeons serves patients from Guelph, Cambridge, and London, Ontario, specializing in cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery, surgical and non-surgical facial rejuvenation, and body contouring procedures.


Cosmetic surgery is a voluntary or elective surgery that is performed on normal parts of the body with the only purpose of improving a person’s appearance and/or removing signs of aging. In 2014, nearly 16 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States alone.[22] The number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United States has almost doubled since the start of the century. 92% of cosmetic procedures were performed on women in 2014, up from 88% in 2001.[23] Nearly 12 million cosmetic procedures were performed in 2007, with the five most common surgeries being breast augmentation, liposuction, breast reduction, eyelid surgery and abdominoplasty. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery looks at the statistics for 34 different cosmetic procedures. Nineteen of the procedures are surgical, such as rhinoplasty or facelift. The nonsurgical procedures include Botox and laser hair removal. In 2010, their survey revealed that there were 9,336,814 total procedures in the United States. Of those, 1,622,290 procedures were surgical (p. 5). They also found that a large majority, 81%, of the procedures were done on Caucasian people (p. 12).[24] The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) estimates that more than 333,000 cosmetic procedures were performed on patients 18 years of age or younger in the US in 2005 compared to approx. 14,000 in 1996. This is significant because it encourages younger people to continue these procedures later in life.[25] The increased use of cosmetic procedures crosses racial and ethnic lines in the U.S., with increases seen among African-Americans, Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans as well as Caucasian Americans. In Europe, the second largest market for cosmetic procedures, cosmetic surgery is a $2.2 billion business.[26] Of 1191 UK newspaper articles, 89% used the term ‘plastic surgery’ in the context of cosmetic surgery. This is significant as it shows the frequency in which the western world portrays cosmetic surgery.[27] In Asia, cosmetic surgery has become more popular, and countries such as China and India have become Asia's biggest cosmetic surgery markets.[28] South Korea is also rising in popularity due to their expertise in facial bone surgeries. The first publication by a team of South Korean surgeons on facial bone contouring surgeries was published illustrating various surgery methods used for facial bone contouring surgeries.[29]
Gaining an understanding of the entire abdominoplasty process from pre-operative planning to full recovery can play an important role in the success of the surgery. This knowledge can help you feel confident in your decision to undergo body contouring, and help you play an active role in achieving the best possible results and the longest-term satisfaction with your refined midsection.

If you’re interested, talk to your physician about getting a referral. (If I were to go for it, I’d also do my own research, maybe asking a friend who’d had a positive experience — and whose results I could see — for the name of her doctor.) Then check with your provincial college of physicians for disciplinary issues, the Canadian Medical Protective Association for malpractice issues and RateMDs.com to see what other patients say about specific doctors. Ask for Botox before and after photos, and get a sense of how long the doctor has been administering Botox. (Are are a few other questions to ask your doctor before taking the plunge.)
Our before and after technology and camera room is set up to produce high definition, full screen sized comparisons that are perfectly aligned – even though many images are taken many months apart. The time and consideration taken in our before and after gallery is a testament to Dr. Oakley’s creative drive and passion for excellence, and user experience.
Arm LiftBody ContouringBody LiftBotulinum ToxinBreast AugmentationBreast Implant Removal & ExchangeBreast LiftBreast ReconstructionBreast ReductionBrow LiftButtock Lift with AugmentationChin AugmentationCleft Lip and PalateDermal FillersEar SurgeryEyelid SurgeryFaceliftGynecomastia SurgeryHair TransplantLip AugmentationLiposuctionRhinoplastyThigh LiftTummy Tuck
The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to perform simple techniques, such as repairing damaged ears, from around the 1st century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions,[15] some of which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.[16]
If, for example, the patient wishes to achieve further weight loss, we must consider whether the results of abdominoplasty might be more flattering once the patient's goal has been met. On the other hand, we must consider the likelihood that the patient will be able to maintain their ideal weight. By discussing the patient's lifestyle and goals in great detail, we can determine whether the planned extent of surgery will provide results that will be compatible with the patient's lifestyle for the long run.
Some doctors don’t believe wearing a binder is necessary, but others may recommend wearing one for up to six weeks. Doctors who choose to use binders place their patients in one right after surgery. You’ll wear it 24 hours a day for the first week, changing to less compression and fewer hours over the next few weeks. Follow your surgeon’s recommendation.
The average chemical peel can cost $500–$700 for each treatment, but prices range from $150 for a mild peel up to several thousand dollars for a series of deep peels. (10) While this might seem like a steep cost for good-looking skin, chemical peels are still less expensive than superficial fractional-laser treatments, which can run up to $1,000 a session and usually require multiple treatments.
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