Cosmetic plastic surgery includes surgical and nonsurgical procedures that enhance and reshape structures of the body to improve appearance and confidence. Healthy individuals with a positive outlook and realistic expectations are appropriate candidates for cosmetic procedures. Plastic surgery is a personal choice and should be done for yourself, not to meet someone else’s expectations or to try to fit an ideal image. Because it is elective, cosmetic surgery is usually not covered by health insurance.
British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasties being performed by Indian methods.[13] Reports on Indian rhinoplasty performed by a Kumhar Vaidya were published in the Gentleman's Magazine by 1794.[13] Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods.[13] Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the Western world in the year of 1815.[14] Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western world.[14]
You need to ensure that you get adequate rest, “for comfort when lying down, rest in bed with two or three pillows behind your head and a pillow under your knees,” says San Diego plastic surgeon Dr. Gilbert Lee. “Get out of bed by sitting up first, then moving your legs over the edge of the bed, and then standing from there. This is when you might need to rely on your caretaker for the first day or so — to help you out of bed.”

In the term "plastic surgery," the adjective plastic implies sculpting and/or reshaping, which is derived from the Greek πλαστική (τέχνη), plastikē (tekhnē), "the art of modelling" of malleable flesh.[2] This meaning in English is seen as early as 1598.[3] The surgical definition of "plastic" first appeared in 1839, preceding the modern "engineering material made from petroleum" sense of plastic (coined by Leo Baekeland in 1909) by 70 years.[4]


His other important work included development of the walking-stalk skin graft, and the discovery that immersion in saline promoted healing as well as improving survival rates for victims with extensive burns — this was a serendipitous discovery drawn from observation of differential healing rates in pilots who had come down on land and in the sea. His radical, experimental treatments led to the formation of the Guinea Pig Club at Queen Victoria Hospital, Sussex. Among the better known members of his "club" were Richard Hillary, Bill Foxley and Jimmy Edwards.[citation needed]
Key complications are reoperation, implant removal with or without replacement, implant rupture with silicone-filled implants, implant deflation with saline-filled implants, and severe capsular contracture (severe scar tissue around the implant). Other complications include asymmetry, nipple/breast/skin sensation changes, scarring, or wrinkling/rippling. Talk to your doctor about other complications.
For me, the main area of concern is my forehead, which I’m told by all the greatest in injectables, to be the most common for those under thirty. After too many holiday sunburns, and recognising that I speak with very expressive eyebrows, the fine faint lines horizontally across my forehead have become much more prominent. So, in the name of beauty journalism I decided to give botox a try, here's what I learnt...
During recovery, follow your doctor’s postop instructions faithfully. They’ll give you specific instructions for how often to wash your face and moisturize, and which products you should use to do so. Try to stay out of the sun until your skin has healed, and avoid using makeup or other cosmetics until your doctor gives you the go-ahead. You can use ice packs for 20 minutes at a time, or a cool fan, to help relieve discomfort at home.
“Once enough time has passed, in most cases at least one year, a tummy tuck scar revision can be performed if necessary,” says Taglienti. “Compared to a full tummy tuck, this is a much easier surgery. Chances are there will not be a lot of pain, no drains are needed, and muscle isn’t manipulated — just the skin. Therefore, most people get back to their lives within a day or two.”
In order to minimize your risk of developing blood clots, you will be asked to stop taking birth control at least two weeks before surgery. You will also have to stop taking any hormones or supplements such as fish oil, and aspirin. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons requires that you sign a consent form confirming the cessation of all supplement intake. In addition to reducing your risk of developing blood clots, stopping your intake of supplements and other medications also helps to minimize bleeding during surgery.
British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasties being performed by Indian methods.[13] Reports on Indian rhinoplasty performed by a Kumhar Vaidya were published in the Gentleman's Magazine by 1794.[13] Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods.[13] Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the Western world in the year of 1815.[14] Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western world.[14]
Though media and advertising do play a large role in influencing many people's lives, such as by making people believe plastic surgery to be an acceptable course to change our identities to our liking,[37] researchers believe that plastic surgery obsession is linked to psychological disorders like body dysmorphic disorder.[38] There exists a correlation between sufferers of BDD and the predilection toward cosmetic plastic surgery in order to correct a perceived defect in their appearance.[39]
During World War I he worked as a medical minder with the Royal Army Medical Corps. After working with the renowned French oral and maxillofacial surgeon Hippolyte Morestin on skin graft, he persuaded the army's chief surgeon, Arbuthnot-Lane, to establish a facial injury ward at the Cambridge Military Hospital, Aldershot, later upgraded to a new hospital for facial repairs at Sidcup in 1917. There Gillies and his colleagues developed many techniques of plastic surgery; more than 11,000 operations were performed on more than 5,000 men (mostly soldiers with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds).[citation needed]After the war, Gillies developed a private practice with Rainsford Mowlem, including many famous patients, and travelled extensively to promote his advanced techniques worldwide.
“The safety and efficacy of any chemical peel are dependent upon preparation, depth, post care, and the experience of the clinician administering the peel,” says Dr. Larry C. Leverett, a Phoenix plastic surgeon, in a chemical peel Q&A. “When treating African-American skin and other ethnic skin types, prepping the skin for a chemical peel is a necessity. … Our patients must prep for at least four weeks prior to the peel, are educated extensively on how to care for their skin post peel, and are encouraged to adhere to their prescribed skin care regimen to obtain optimal results.”

Some people with a particular type of skin can face issues immediately after taking a Chemical Peels treatment for their skin. Some of them can even see some swelling and breaking of the skin surface that can take a few days to recover fully. Similarly, there are instances of alteration in the colour of the skin after the peel withers off. There have also been reports of scarring on the skin surface following a Chemical Peels treatment. It must, however, be added here that almost all these after effects are of temporary nature and they are generally treated and rectified without causing any permanent damage.


Myfatbelly, After seven weeks of healing you are pretty far along and it sounds like you are making progress. Standing full and upright is something we expect to see in most patients after the first week, and some actuallly return to work and gentle activities after two weeks though the pace of recovery can vary. You are on the slow side but don't worry. Full tummy tuck is not a single... READ MORE
The price of a chemical peel will depend on a number of factors, but the starting point will be the condition or conditions that you are hoping to improve.  That will directly determine the type of chemical peel used, the strength, the area or areas being treated and the number of treatments that you require.  Of course the location of the clinic and experience of the professional treating you, will also be relevant.  

In 1891, American otorhinolaryngologist John Roe presented an example of his work: a young woman on whom he reduced a dorsal nasal hump for cosmetic indications. In 1892, Robert Weir experimented unsuccessfully with xenografts (duck sternum) in the reconstruction of sunken noses. In 1896, James Israel, a urological surgeon from Germany, and in 1889 George Monks of the United States each described the successful use of heterogeneous free-bone grafting to reconstruct saddle nose defects. In 1898, Jacques Joseph, the German orthopaedic-trained surgeon, published his first account of reduction rhinoplasty. In 1928, Jacques Joseph published Nasenplastik und Sonstige Gesichtsplastik.
During World War I he worked as a medical minder with the Royal Army Medical Corps. After working with the renowned French oral and maxillofacial surgeon Hippolyte Morestin on skin graft, he persuaded the army's chief surgeon, Arbuthnot-Lane, to establish a facial injury ward at the Cambridge Military Hospital, Aldershot, later upgraded to a new hospital for facial repairs at Sidcup in 1917. There Gillies and his colleagues developed many techniques of plastic surgery; more than 11,000 operations were performed on more than 5,000 men (mostly soldiers with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds).[citation needed]After the war, Gillies developed a private practice with Rainsford Mowlem, including many famous patients, and travelled extensively to promote his advanced techniques worldwide.
After the procedure is done, the skin will look as though it has been sunburned, and for about a week after the procedure has been done, the skin will start to peel, exposing the skin underneath.  It can be a few weeks before the skin heals properly.  Medium-depth peels, however, may result in swelling or blisters that crust or break down over time and can take a longer time to heal.
There are several factors that determine the cost of a chemical peel. The most significant difference in cost is related to the type of chemical peel that is being performed. Superficial peels such as those containing salicylic acid or glycolic acid are typically much cheaper than the stronger medium- and deep-depth chemical peels, like the TCA peel and the phenol-croton oil peel. These stronger peels are often performed under anesthesia, which contributes an added cost, and may take more time to perform and manage after the procedure is complete. However, the results of these stronger peels are usually permanent, whereas a more superficial peel may require several repeat treatments to achieve an adequate result. The severity of the skin issues to be treated, such as the deepness of the wrinkles or the amount of pigmentation changes, will be factors in determining which treatment is right for you. I recommend that you schedule a consultation with a board-certified physician who specializes in facial skin care and can evaluate your particular concerns to recommend the treatment that is most effective for you within your proposed budget. Remember, when it comes to your face, cost is a consideration, but the most important thing is that you find someone who will provide you with safe and effective treatment!
On average, the cost of a chemical peel will depend on where you live, the medical provider you plan on using and the type of chemical peel applied.  With these factors in place, the average session can cost $150 to $400; however, to see desirable results, the average patient, according to our research pays a total of $1,800 to $3,700.  These costs will vary depending on your personal situation since some patients may see results after a few sessions, whereas others may need multiple sessions. Refer to our table below to see what the most popular branded chemical peels will cost per session.  This data was gathered from credible doctor answers we had found online such as this RealSelf.com forum thread.

The most commonly reported side effects with JUVÉDERM® injectable gels included injection-site redness, swelling, pain, tenderness, firmness, lumps/bumps, bruising, discoloration, and itching. For JUVÉDERM VOLBELLA® XC, dryness was also reported. For JUVÉDERM VOLUMA® XC, most side effects were moderate and lasted 2 to 4 weeks. For JUVÉDERM® XC, JUVÉDERM VOLLURE™ XC, and JUVÉDERM® Ultra XC injectable gels, most side effects were mild or moderate and lasted 14 days or less. For JUVÉDERM VOLBELLA® XC, most side effects were mild or moderate and lasted 30 days or less.

"Personally, I think people need to mentally prepare themselves," she said. "You just had surgery, so of course your body will swell. You will be thinking, ‘Okay, I'm going to get a tummy tuck, and then I'm going to look amazing.' But that takes time. It's a process, and you need to be aware of that. You won't see an amazing new tummy after one or two days. It will be flat, but the swelling takes up to a year to finally subside."
Clinical diagnosis of depression or other mental health disorders, including body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders. Please discuss any history of mental health disorders with your surgeon prior to surgery. Patients with a diagnosis of depression or other mental health disorders should wait for resolution or stabilization of these conditions prior to undergoing breast implantation surgery.
The cost of chemical peels depends on many factors such as the severity of the wrinkles, the extent of the sun damage, the total number of treatments, the specific area needing treatment, the brand and type of peel, time of peel and deepness. Deeper peels typically cost more as they are more time intensive and the risk management is greater. In Santa Barbara, superficial peels average between $250 -$400 while medium depth TCA peels cost between $600 to $800.
A chemical peel is a cosmetic treatment (typically not covered by insurance) in which an esthetician or doctor applies a chemical solution to your skin, most often the skin on your face. After several hours or days, the solution blisters your skin’s top layer, allowing the damaged skin to peel away, revealing smoother skin underneath. Chemical peels are designed to reduce fine lines around the eyes and mouth, improve the appearance of acne scars, treat sun damage and age wrinkles, reduce age spots and other dark skin patches, and improve the overall look and feel of the skin.
"I tell my patients that they will immediately notice a difference in their abdominal area, but that it will take two to three months for most of the swelling to subside and to get their final result," says Dr. Pat Pazmino, a Miami plastic surgeon, in a RealSelf Q&A. "Sometimes, some swelling persists over the suture line - this will also go down as your body continues to heal across the scar."
Each peel is slightly different, and the exact formula will depend on the intensity level of the treatment. However, the most common chemicals used in peels are alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), beta hydroxy acids (BHAs), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and phenol. AHAs and BHAs are the lightest acids, often used in light chemical peels. TCA can be used in many different formulations. Last but not least, phenol is the strongest chemical and only used in deep peels.
Depending on the extent of your surgery, you can expect to spend anywhere from three days to a week or more limiting yourself to minimal physical activity. You certainly will not be bed ridden during this time, but you will be expected to avoid activity that is more strenuous than walking very short distances. You will also have to take very special care to avoid placing any strain on your incisions.
Tell your doctor if you have received any other botulinum toxin product in the last 4 months; have received injections of botulinum toxin such as Myobloc®, Dysport®, or Xeomin® in the past (tell your doctor exactly which product you received); have recently received an antibiotic by injection; take muscle relaxants; take an allergy or cold medicine; take a sleep medicine; take aspirin-like products or blood thinners.
The cost of the procedure will vary depending on factors like location, expertise of the provider, and what type of peel you want to get. Light peels can cost as low as $150, and deep peels can cost $3,000 or more (specifically if it requires anesthesia, or in-patient stays). According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, the current average cost of a chemical peel is $673.

Obviously, you can expect some pain and tenderness following surgery, but your surgeon will provide you with a recommendation for pain management. I personally administer EXPAREL®, an injectable painkiller that provides three to four days of relief, and eliminates the need to take oral medication in order to maintain comfort. It is important to keep your bowels moving after abdominoplasty, so I always recommend that patients take laxatives during recovery. I also prescribe antibiotics to further reduce the risk of infection.
However, abdominoplasty is not considered a weight loss procedure.“One problem with the majority of patients is that they think it’s okay to have a tummy tuck just because they are overweight,” says New York City plastic and cosmetic surgeon Dr. Leonard Grossman. “Being overweight results in the majority of complications associated with tummy tucks.”
I needed very little convincing before making my way down to the Cadogan Clinic, one of the very best locations in London (might I add) to speak to Nurse Libbie Wallace, a master in her field. After filling in a short consultation form, Nurse Libbie asks me how old I am. After replying 28, she chuckles a little, but continues… I’m not the youngest client she’s had walk through the door, but she does tell me that she would only ever treat those that actually can benefit from the treatment, ‘It’s important that I manage patients expectations’.
If you’re interested, talk to your physician about getting a referral. (If I were to go for it, I’d also do my own research, maybe asking a friend who’d had a positive experience — and whose results I could see — for the name of her doctor.) Then check with your provincial college of physicians for disciplinary issues, the Canadian Medical Protective Association for malpractice issues and RateMDs.com to see what other patients say about specific doctors. Ask for Botox before and after photos, and get a sense of how long the doctor has been administering Botox. (Are are a few other questions to ask your doctor before taking the plunge.)
It’s a poison: a purified protein called botulinum toxin type A derived from bacteria. It temporarily relaxes muscle areas by blocking nerve impulses that trigger contractions, softening wrinkles and modifying expression. In therapeutic treatment it’s used for cerebral palsy and conditions such as excessive sweating. Although Botox has been used off-label since the 1990s in North America, Health Canada only approved it in 2001 for treating the two vertical lines between the brows (the ‘elevens’) and in 2005 for forehead wrinkles and crow’s feet.

Something you might not realize about the benefits of a chemical peel? Recent advances in chemical peel procedures means that they help to deposit skin-healing ingredients into the skin, such as collagen, that can reduce lines and help improve tone. And after the top layer of your skin sheds following a peel, cells begin to increase collagen production and make more hyaluronic acid, both of which has anti-aging effects.

“Occasionally, patients will certainly engage in activities that slow their recovery or cause complications. Probably the most impactful factor is not following the surgeon’s instructions. This is a big one,” says Jack. “We make postoperative instructions for a reason — to protect the patient and help ensure they heal well and have a good cosmetic outcome.”


Moderate peels require longer healing time, 7 to 14 days, due to more intensive blistering and peeling. Moderate peels are usually done with glycolic acid, trichloroacetic acid, or a combination of acids that reach both the outer and middle layers of your skin. Moderate peels may cost anywhere from under $200 to over $600, depending on the provider.
Before your procedure, you’ll first have a consultation with the skin care specialist. During this visit, they’ll help you determine what the best treatment option is for you. They’ll let you know the details about the specific peel you’ll be getting, and they’ll ask about anything that could interfere with the peel. This may include whether you’ve taken acne medication, and information about whether or not you scar easily.
Additionally, recent studies have found that certain chemical peels can help reverse melasma, a type of hyperpigmentary disorder and “notorious dermatosis” that is often resistant to treatments, including laser treatments. (8) Melasma is a common chronic form of hyperpigmentation of the skin that can have a serious impact on someone’s self-esteem and quality of life. 
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