The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to perform simple techniques, such as repairing damaged ears, from around the 1st century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions,[15] some of which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.[16]
The current semantic diversity of the word plastic has a long history of development. Essentially, there are two ways of using this term.[5] In its original sense plastic relates to formation or shaping of matter, i.e. to plastic art. Plastic can also be used figuratively in the meaning of formation of non-material things (e.g. writing a poem, creating a piece of music, and so on), i.e. in the meaning of the power to create. Both notions have been around for thousands of years. The origin of the dual history of the materialistic and philosophical use of plastic can be traced back to the ancient Greek craft of pottery and mythology, respectively. Wider textual use of the term plastic began with Pliny the Elder’s (23 – 79 AD) Plastice, a chapter in his Natural History. The semantic flourish of plastic started only at the end of the 18th century when Johann Gottfried Herder introduced the concept of “plastic sense” in his aesthetic essay Plastik (Sculpture) of 1778.[5]
Starting in the mid 1990s, chemical peels were one of the most common cosmetic procedures performed in dermatologists’ offices, according to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. (1) And while recent advances in laser skin treatments and anti-aging injections, such as Botox or Xeomin, made chemical peels less popular for some years, many feel that the chemical peel is now back and better than ever.
Medium-depth peels — Helps to remove facial lines, scars and birthmarks, but can cause side effects and take longer to heal from. Most people will see at least some results after one treatment, but multiple treatments are usually needed for full effects. Some dermatologists now recommend mild to medium peels that use multiple acids rather than one single acid at a higher strength, as multiple acids can lead to less irritation.
When performed by an experienced cosmetic dermatologist or plastic surgeon, chemical facial peels are safe. With light and medium peels, relatively mild chemical peel side effects such as redness, stinging, and crusting usually subside within a day or two after the treatment. The side effects of deep chemical peels are typically more pronounced, and recovery time is longer. More serious side effects, such as infection and scarring, are possible, especially with medium and deep chemical peels. However, serious side effects are rare when the procedure is performed by a qualified doctor.
“Unwanted side effects are hyper or hypopigmentation, swelling, or infection,” says Dr. Davin Lim, a Brisbane, Queensland dermatologist, in a RealSelf Q&A. “Expected side effects are redness, flaking, and dryness, and can be easily managed. You can manage these risks by doing the following: sun protection, prepping your skin before chemical peels, avoiding active ingredients one to two days before treatment, and consulting with an experienced cosmetic provider and following aftercare instructions.”
Many abdominoplasty patients are mothers who wish to refine their midsection following childbirth. Carrying a child can cause the abdominal muscles to separate, and stretch the abdominal skin. In addition to considering ideal body weight, female patients must contemplate the likelihood of wanting more children in the future. Often, the best time for a mother to have abdominoplasty is when she is certain she does not wish to have more children.
Treatments for the plastic repair of a broken nose are first mentioned in the Edwin Smith Papyrus,[7] a transcription of an Ancient Egyptian medical text, one of the oldest known surgical treatises, dated to the Old Kingdom from 3000 to 2500 BC.[8] Reconstructive surgery techniques were being carried out in India by 800 BC.[9] Sushruta was a physician who made important contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in 6th century BC.[10] The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka, originally in Sanskrit, were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD.[11] The Arabic translations made their way into Europe via intermediaries.[11] In Italy, the Branca family[12] of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.[11]
Chemical peels can range in costs from a few hundred dollars to a thousand dollars depending on the strength of the acid peel and what type of peel is being performed.  The costs also range on who is performing the peels.  In my office only the physician (myself) performs the peels and I use medical grade peels which only a physician can administer.  The results are wonderful and leave your skin smoother and rejuvenated.
Moderate peels require longer healing time, 7 to 14 days, due to more intensive blistering and peeling. Moderate peels are usually done with glycolic acid, trichloroacetic acid, or a combination of acids that reach both the outer and middle layers of your skin. Moderate peels may cost anywhere from under $200 to over $600, depending on the provider.
She advises me that there are many conspiracies around botox- staying up right for more than two hours, is false for starters. ‘The solution takes 20 minutes to settle in your muscles, so I do advise you to stay upright for then, any longer wont make a difference’. She does however advise me not to undertake exercise that’s too strenuous or hot following the treatment (fine by me) and to carefully wash my face when I get home, not scrubbing or rubbing too hard.
There are variations on the tummy tuck operation which will have variable recovery rates. the main factor is whether the muscle has been tightened. It is the muscle manipulation which slows the recovery. I tell my patients surgery on skin is less painful than muscle. As a general rule, patients are off the pain medications by 5-7 days. Surgical drains need to be removed and this is usually... READ MORE
All chemical peels remove outer layers of the skin, though how many layers depends on the intensity of the peel. After a healing period, which also varies with the intensity level, skin is left feeling softer and smoother. Superficial issues such as acne or acne scars, fine lines and wrinkles, and hyperpigmentation should be improved, if not completely corrected. And because chemical peels sweep away complexion-dulling dead skin cells, they leave faces with a radiant glow.

With breast implants, a routine screening mammography and self-examinations for breast cancer will be more difficult. Ask your doctor to help you distinguish the implant from your breast tissue. Symptoms of a ruptured implant may be hard knots or lumps surrounding the implant or in the armpit, change or loss of size or shape of the breast or implant, pain, tingling, swelling, numbness, burning, or hardening. Tell your doctor of these symptoms and remove ruptured implants.


His other important work included development of the walking-stalk skin graft, and the discovery that immersion in saline promoted healing as well as improving survival rates for victims with extensive burns — this was a serendipitous discovery drawn from observation of differential healing rates in pilots who had come down on land and in the sea. His radical, experimental treatments led to the formation of the Guinea Pig Club at Queen Victoria Hospital, Sussex. Among the better known members of his "club" were Richard Hillary, Bill Foxley and Jimmy Edwards.[citation needed]
In addition, the surface of the skin will remain a little sensitive for a couple of days and if the person has to go out in the sun then the use of a sunscreen lotion is essential to protect the skin from any damage. It may be advisable to seek expert help for availing Chemical Peels treatment of the deeper type since the person may even feel some pain and suitable medication ay have to be taken to suppress the pain. Some of the chemicals used in making the Chemical Peels include Alpha-hydroxy acid, Glycolic or trichloroacetic acid and Trichloroacetic acid, the last one usually found in the Chemical Peels used for deep action.
A chemical peel is a skin-resurfacing procedure that uses a solution of various chemicals that are applied to the skin. (2) Chemical peel solutions cause the top layer of skin to peel off in order to hopefully smooth the surface of the skin and provide other benefits like fading fine lines and scars. Most chemical peels have a gel-like consistency and are applied to the face, though sometimes peels are used on other parts of the body, such as the neck, hands or chest.
A superficial peel, which will be the mildest peel available is often referred to as a lunchtime peel since it can be done in less than 30 minutes.  Using either an alpha-hydroxy acid or another type of mild acid, such as salicylic or maleic acid, this treatment will be lightly applied to the targeted area to exfoliate it.  A light peel will often need multiple treatments to see desirable results.
The chemical solution for body chemical peels is typically comprised of a combination of trichloroacetic acid (the main ingredient in a medium-depth skin peel) and glycolic acid (the main ingredient of a mild peel). The solution for body chemical peels is typically formulated to be slightly stronger than the chemical solution used for light or medium facial skin peels, though it is milder than the phenol solution used for deep skin peels.

Your cosmetic dermatologist will use a specific formula for your chemical peel based on the characteristics of your skin and your desired result. Light chemical peels are used to treat fine wrinkling, areas of dryness, uneven pigmentation, and acne. The solution used for light chemical peels is usually comprised of alphahydroxy acids (AHAs), such as glycolic, lactic, salicylic, or fruit acids. Light chemical peels are ideal for people who want the benefits of a facial peel but do not wish to spend the time required to recover from a deeper peel.

Thank you for your question. The cost of a chemical peel is determined by the type of peel used, its strength, the area being treated and the number of sessions required to get the result that you desire. Also the city in which you live and the professional experience of the cosmetic doctor will contribute to the cost of administering the chemical peel. 
The cost of chemical peels depends on many factors such as the severity of the wrinkles, the extent of the sun damage, the total number of treatments, the specific area needing treatment, the brand and type of peel, time of peel and deepness. Deeper peels typically cost more as they are more time intensive and the risk management is greater. In Santa Barbara, superficial peels average between $250 -$400 while medium depth TCA peels cost between $600 to $800.
Spread of toxin effects. The effect of botulinum toxin may affect areas away from the injection site and cause serious symptoms including: loss of strength and all-over muscle weakness, double vision, blurred vision and drooping eyelids, hoarseness or change or loss of voice, trouble saying words clearly, loss of bladder control, trouble breathing, and trouble swallowing.
Deep chemical peels are the strongest of the facial peels. The chemical used for deep chemical peels is phenol acid. Deep peels are used to treat coarse facial wrinkles, blotches caused by aging or sun exposure, and pre-cancerous growths. While a deep chemical peel produces the most dramatic, longest-lasting results, the procedure takes longer than other peels (one to two hours) and requires the most healing time. Phenol acid is typically used only for facial peels. Because a deep chemical peel may cause permanent lightening of the skin, prospective patients should seek advice from a qualified cosmetic dermatologist before undergoing the procedure.
In the term "plastic surgery," the adjective plastic implies sculpting and/or reshaping, which is derived from the Greek πλαστική (τέχνη), plastikē (tekhnē), "the art of modelling" of malleable flesh.[2] This meaning in English is seen as early as 1598.[3] The surgical definition of "plastic" first appeared in 1839, preceding the modern "engineering material made from petroleum" sense of plastic (coined by Leo Baekeland in 1909) by 70 years.[4]
The most salient difference between chemical peels and microdermabrasion is that microdermabrasion is a non-chemical procedure, and attacks imperfections by actually "sanding" flaws from the skin surface. While treatment plans for microdermabrasion and mild chemical peels such as glycolic acid chemical peels are similar, more advanced chemical peels require only one session. However, deep chemical peels such as the phenol peel also require much more recovery time than microdermabrasion and the more mild peels. Also unlike microdermabrasion, deep chemical peels change the actual pigmentation of the skin through bleaching. Because of this, patients with naturally darker complexions may be better candidates for microdermabrasion.
However, abdominoplasty is not considered a weight loss procedure.“One problem with the majority of patients is that they think it’s okay to have a tummy tuck just because they are overweight,” says New York City plastic and cosmetic surgeon Dr. Leonard Grossman. “Being overweight results in the majority of complications associated with tummy tucks.”
During the pre-op assessment, you can expect your surgeon to conduct a close evaluation of your risk of thrombosis, or the formation of blood clots inside blood vessels. Blood clotting is a natural process that is essential in healing. For example, when you experience a minor cut on your skin, the scab that forms is a result of blood clotting. In most cases, blood clots dissolve on their own. However, when a blood clot inside a blood vessel fails to dissolve, it can obstruct proper blood flow to the lungs, brain, and other areas, which can cause serious health complications.
The current semantic diversity of the word plastic has a long history of development. Essentially, there are two ways of using this term.[5] In its original sense plastic relates to formation or shaping of matter, i.e. to plastic art. Plastic can also be used figuratively in the meaning of formation of non-material things (e.g. writing a poem, creating a piece of music, and so on), i.e. in the meaning of the power to create. Both notions have been around for thousands of years. The origin of the dual history of the materialistic and philosophical use of plastic can be traced back to the ancient Greek craft of pottery and mythology, respectively. Wider textual use of the term plastic began with Pliny the Elder’s (23 – 79 AD) Plastice, a chapter in his Natural History. The semantic flourish of plastic started only at the end of the 18th century when Johann Gottfried Herder introduced the concept of “plastic sense” in his aesthetic essay Plastik (Sculpture) of 1778.[5]

Additionally, recent studies have found that certain chemical peels can help reverse melasma, a type of hyperpigmentary disorder and “notorious dermatosis” that is often resistant to treatments, including laser treatments. (8) Melasma is a common chronic form of hyperpigmentation of the skin that can have a serious impact on someone’s self-esteem and quality of life.


Tell your doctor about all your medical conditions, including: plans to have surgery; had surgery on your face; have trouble raising your eyebrows; drooping eyelids; any other abnormal facial change; are pregnant or plan to become pregnant (it is not known if BOTOX® Cosmetic can harm your unborn baby); are breast-feeding or plan to (it is not known if BOTOX® Cosmetic passes into breast milk).

A chemical peel is a cosmetic treatment (typically not covered by insurance) in which an esthetician or doctor applies a chemical solution to your skin, most often the skin on your face. After several hours or days, the solution blisters your skin’s top layer, allowing the damaged skin to peel away, revealing smoother skin underneath. Chemical peels are designed to reduce fine lines around the eyes and mouth, improve the appearance of acne scars, treat sun damage and age wrinkles, reduce age spots and other dark skin patches, and improve the overall look and feel of the skin.


So what is the ideal age for botox? ‘There is no recommended age’, Wallace says, and Victoria Spyrou, the injectables expert at EF MediSpa agrees, ‘The recommended age differs because everyone’s muscles present differently. If someone at the age of 21 has visible dynamic lines that are causing a problem, then I will treat that person, however, if another 21-year-old comes in without any visible lines – I would decline to treat them.’
“Believe it or not, patients who are overweight are malnourished. What that means is that their capacity to heal is very poor,” says Grossman. “Patients who are malnourished have more seromas or fluid accumulations. In fact, about 50% of all patients will form a seroma when not stabilized nutritionally. So, at my practice we have an extensive approach to nutrition before and after the surgery.”
After your skin has been numbed, the solution is applied to your face and is left to ‘work’. The amount of time it’s left on your skin depends on the specific type of peel, and it could range from a few seconds to up to an hour for more lightweight peels. Some peels will be neutralized with water, and then a protective mask or layer of petroleum jelly is placed on your treated skin.

Some people with a particular type of skin can face issues immediately after taking a Chemical Peels treatment for their skin. Some of them can even see some swelling and breaking of the skin surface that can take a few days to recover fully. Similarly, there are instances of alteration in the colour of the skin after the peel withers off. There have also been reports of scarring on the skin surface following a Chemical Peels treatment. It must, however, be added here that almost all these after effects are of temporary nature and they are generally treated and rectified without causing any permanent damage.
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