Though media and advertising do play a large role in influencing many people's lives, such as by making people believe plastic surgery to be an acceptable course to change our identities to our liking,[37] researchers believe that plastic surgery obsession is linked to psychological disorders like body dysmorphic disorder.[38] There exists a correlation between sufferers of BDD and the predilection toward cosmetic plastic surgery in order to correct a perceived defect in their appearance.[39]
Arm LiftBody ContouringBody LiftBotulinum ToxinBreast AugmentationBreast Implant Removal & ExchangeBreast LiftBreast ReconstructionBreast ReductionBrow LiftButtock Lift with AugmentationChin AugmentationCleft Lip and PalateDermal FillersEar SurgeryEyelid SurgeryFaceliftGynecomastia SurgeryHair TransplantLip AugmentationLiposuctionRhinoplastyThigh LiftTummy Tuck
Treatments for the plastic repair of a broken nose are first mentioned in the Edwin Smith Papyrus,[7] a transcription of an Ancient Egyptian medical text, one of the oldest known surgical treatises, dated to the Old Kingdom from 3000 to 2500 BC.[8] Reconstructive surgery techniques were being carried out in India by 800 BC.[9] Sushruta was a physician who made important contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in 6th century BC.[10] The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka, originally in Sanskrit, were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD.[11] The Arabic translations made their way into Europe via intermediaries.[11] In Italy, the Branca family[12] of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.[11]
After care from the experts was pretty simple and didn’t require anything too strenuous. To keep results looking optimum I’m told to avoid things such as smoking, excess alcohol, sun exposure and getting stressed - which can all help break down collagen faster, decreasing the longevity of Botox. ‘I always recommend that my clients use a daily antioxidant topical serum and an SPF 50 too,’ advises Spyrou.
Deep chemical peels involve a longer procedure and longer recovery time that lasts up to several months in some cases. Patients who want to correct blotches caused by sun exposure or age, minimize coarse wrinkles, or remove a pre-cancerous growth may benefit from a deep peel. There are certain factors which must be taken into consideration when contemplating a deep chemical peel. Darker-skinned patients and individuals with heart problems are not ideal candidates. Potential chemical peel candidates should be aware that the treatment may take an hour or more, and may require sedation. Anyone who decides on this procedure should be prepared for a long, slow recovery period, and should wear sunscreen whenever exposed to sun.
Umbilical and ventral hernias are conditions that must be addressed prior to undergoing abdominoplasty. An umbilical hernia occurs when a portion of the small intestine protrudes through a natural opening between the abdominal muscles. Though the condition is fairly common and usually does not create any painful or debilitating symptoms, it can complicate abdominoplasty.
Some people with a particular type of skin can face issues immediately after taking a Chemical Peels treatment for their skin. Some of them can even see some swelling and breaking of the skin surface that can take a few days to recover fully. Similarly, there are instances of alteration in the colour of the skin after the peel withers off. There have also been reports of scarring on the skin surface following a Chemical Peels treatment. It must, however, be added here that almost all these after effects are of temporary nature and they are generally treated and rectified without causing any permanent damage.
After a chemical peel, skin is temporarily more sensitive to the sun, so wear sunscreen every day. It should say "broad-spectrum" on the label, meaning it protects against the sun's UVA and UVB rays. Also, it should be a physical sunscreen and be above SPF 30. Limit your time in the sun, especially between the hours of 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., and wear a wide-brimmed hat.
“Believe it or not, patients who are overweight are malnourished. What that means is that their capacity to heal is very poor,” says Grossman. “Patients who are malnourished have more seromas or fluid accumulations. In fact, about 50% of all patients will form a seroma when not stabilized nutritionally. So, at my practice we have an extensive approach to nutrition before and after the surgery.”
A ventral hernia occurs when part of the intestines push through a tear in the abdominal wall. These tears are sometimes the result of an incision made during a prior surgery. Either of these conditions can inhibit blood flow, which can in turn complicate the healing process. During a patient's initial consultation, I conduct my own physical analysis of the patient and a review of his or her medical history to determine if either of these conditions are present.
There sure are. Peels are formulated as light, medium, or deep chemical treatments, based on the chemicals used and how they are formulated. The treatment that's right for you will depend on what you're hoping to treat and how much downtime you're willing to endure. You should always consult with your dermatologist before undergoing any chemical peel.

Chemical peel cost varies widely, depending on whether you get a light, medium, or deep peel. Light peels generally average about $150 to $400, but medical-grade peels performed in a physicians office can run as much as $6,000. If you're looking to save money on a light- or medium-grade peel, be sure to check Groupon to find great deals on chemical peels near you.
After your skin has been numbed, the solution is applied to your face and is left to ‘work’. The amount of time it’s left on your skin depends on the specific type of peel, and it could range from a few seconds to up to an hour for more lightweight peels. Some peels will be neutralized with water, and then a protective mask or layer of petroleum jelly is placed on your treated skin.

Patients are urged not to smoke for a few weeks before and after a chemical peel. The best outcomes will be achieved in patients who are not taking the acne medication Accutane®, have not taken it for the previous year and a half, and who are free of active skin infections. Also, if you have large or unusual scar formations, such as keloids, your doctor may recommend a different treatment for you. Patients who have a family history of heart problems are not considered good candidates for the deep chemical peel procedure.
The cost of Chemical Peels treatment in India can vary according to the type of clinic you decide to get your treatment done and also the type of treatment you choose, the mild or the deeper type peel or chemical you opt for. It can start anywhere from around Rs.1500 per sitting to Rs. 3000 per session. Remember you will have to return for the peel after a few months. The cost also does not include the expenses on the sunscreen lotion or other treatment to take care of the skin before and after the peel.
After relaying to Nurse Libbie that I didn’t want it to look ‘too frozen’, she agrees to give me 10 units across my forehead, and 15 in the centre of my frown- the average dose is between 10-25 units. I lay down across the bed in her treatment room and as she preps the solution, I’m asked to frown and raise my brows. As I do so she inserts the needle, and a tiny dose of botox by Allergen is inserted across six points of my forehead and in between my eyebrows. 

The cost of Chemical Peels treatment in India can vary according to the type of clinic you decide to get your treatment done and also the type of treatment you choose, the mild or the deeper type peel or chemical you opt for. It can start anywhere from around Rs.1500 per sitting to Rs. 3000 per session. Remember you will have to return for the peel after a few months. The cost also does not include the expenses on the sunscreen lotion or other treatment to take care of the skin before and after the peel.
They come in a range of strengths, from deeper phenol-based peels to more superficial peels like glycolic acid. Deeper peels may not be right for everyone, particularly if you have sensitive skin. A few light or medium-depth peels can often achieve similar results to one deeper peel treatment, with less risk and a shorter recovery time. Talk to a qualified provider about your goals to see if a chemical peel would work for your concern and skin.
Depending on the extent of your surgery, you can expect to spend anywhere from three days to a week or more limiting yourself to minimal physical activity. You certainly will not be bed ridden during this time, but you will be expected to avoid activity that is more strenuous than walking very short distances. You will also have to take very special care to avoid placing any strain on your incisions.
The cost of chemical peels depends on many factors such as the severity of the wrinkles, the extent of the sun damage, the total number of treatments, the specific area needing treatment, the brand and type of peel, time of peel and deepness. Deeper peels typically cost more as they are more time intensive and the risk management is greater. In Santa Barbara, superficial peels average between $250 -$400 while medium depth TCA peels cost between $600 to $800.
Common side effects are bruising and swelling. Rarely, there is “serum sickness,” which manifests as flu-like symptoms that subside in a few hours, says Mulholland. “A dreaded complication is that the Botox travels through fatty tissues to muscles it wasn’t intended to block — like a muscle of the eyelid, which leads to ptosis (droopy eye), or the muscles that move the eyeball, leading to double vision.” He says these happen to less than one per cent of patients and go away within two weeks. The Botox Cosmetic website states asthma symptoms and inability to swallow have also been reported.
After being applied to the skin, chemical peels intentionally make the skin blister and then peel, although chemical peels are now considered safer than in years past and are less likely to leave skin feeling “raw.” (3) The purpose of peels is to remove dull surface skin cells, which typically leads to an improvement in fine lines, acne, discoloration and more.
A study published in 2009 in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology found that Botox may also improve a person’s mood. The theory there? The less you scowl — a facial expression that’s not easy to make with a smoothed brow — the more upbeat you feel. People who like it (some of my friends included) say it’s simply one item on the menu of ways to stay youthful looking, especially in a competitive workforce.

The benefits and drawbacks of laser skin resurfacing vs. chemical peels are slightly more difficult to ascertain, due to the relatively new nature of the laser resurfacing procedure. However, many doctors claim that the improvement to patients' skin after laser skin resurfacing is essentially equivalent to that seen with chemical peels and microdermabrasion. Lasers do allow doctors to target specific flaws and imperfections with much more precision than chemical peels.


Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns; traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures and breaks; congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; and cancer or tumors. Reconstructive plastic surgery is usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance.
In 1793, François Chopart performed operative procedure on a lip using a flap from the neck. In 1814, Joseph Carpue successfully performed operative procedure on a British military officer who had lost his nose to the toxic effects of mercury treatments. In 1818, German surgeon Carl Ferdinand von Graefe published his major work entitled Rhinoplastik. Von Graefe modified the Italian method using a free skin graft from the arm instead of the original delayed pedicle flap.
The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to perform simple techniques, such as repairing damaged ears, from around the 1st century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions,[15] some of which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.[16]
After your skin has been numbed, the solution is applied to your face and is left to ‘work’. The amount of time it’s left on your skin depends on the specific type of peel, and it could range from a few seconds to up to an hour for more lightweight peels. Some peels will be neutralized with water, and then a protective mask or layer of petroleum jelly is placed on your treated skin.
The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to perform simple techniques, such as repairing damaged ears, from around the 1st century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions,[15] some of which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.[16]
An ideal candidate for a chemical peel is in good physical health, understands the procedure, and has realistic expectations of the outcome. You are likely to be pleased with the results of a chemical peel if your goal is to alleviate acne, smooth wrinkles, improve skin texture, eliminate age spots, or reduce the effects of sun damage. The different types of chemical peels come in varying strengths and provide different levels of treatment. Ask your doctor which chemical peel is best for your skin type and needs.
The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to perform simple techniques, such as repairing damaged ears, from around the 1st century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions,[15] some of which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.[16]
Some people with a particular type of skin can face issues immediately after taking a Chemical Peels treatment for their skin. Some of them can even see some swelling and breaking of the skin surface that can take a few days to recover fully. Similarly, there are instances of alteration in the colour of the skin after the peel withers off. There have also been reports of scarring on the skin surface following a Chemical Peels treatment. It must, however, be added here that almost all these after effects are of temporary nature and they are generally treated and rectified without causing any permanent damage.

On average, the cost of a chemical peel will depend on where you live, the medical provider you plan on using and the type of chemical peel applied.  With these factors in place, the average session can cost $150 to $400; however, to see desirable results, the average patient, according to our research pays a total of $1,800 to $3,700.  These costs will vary depending on your personal situation since some patients may see results after a few sessions, whereas others may need multiple sessions. Refer to our table below to see what the most popular branded chemical peels will cost per session.  This data was gathered from credible doctor answers we had found online such as this RealSelf.com forum thread.

In the term "plastic surgery," the adjective plastic implies sculpting and/or reshaping, which is derived from the Greek πλαστική (τέχνη), plastikē (tekhnē), "the art of modelling" of malleable flesh.[2] This meaning in English is seen as early as 1598.[3] The surgical definition of "plastic" first appeared in 1839, preceding the modern "engineering material made from petroleum" sense of plastic (coined by Leo Baekeland in 1909) by 70 years.[4]


Before the procedure even begins, the professional who’s going to perform the procedure will first apply a chemical solution — usually trichloroacetic acid, glycolic acid, trichloroacetic acid, salicylic acid, lactic acid or carbolic acid (phenol) on small areas of your skin.  Doing so can create a controlled wound, allowing the new skin to take its place.
All surgery has risks. Common complications of cosmetic surgery includes hematoma, nerve damage, infection, scarring, implant failure and organ damage.[33][34][35] Breast implants can have many complications, including rupture. In 2011 FDA stated that one in five patients who received implants for breast augmentation will need them removed within 10 years of implantation.[36] 

During the pre-op assessment, you can expect your surgeon to conduct a close evaluation of your risk of thrombosis, or the formation of blood clots inside blood vessels. Blood clotting is a natural process that is essential in healing. For example, when you experience a minor cut on your skin, the scab that forms is a result of blood clotting. In most cases, blood clots dissolve on their own. However, when a blood clot inside a blood vessel fails to dissolve, it can obstruct proper blood flow to the lungs, brain, and other areas, which can cause serious health complications.
But if you try it and then decide to stop, what happens? “There’s this myth that if you stop using Botox, your face will look wrinkly and your features will cascade into a degenerative state you never had,” says Toronto cosmetic surgeon Dr. Stephen Mulholland, whose average Botox patient is age 40. But in fact, he says, if you stop, your face returns to its normal animation, and facial muscles return to normal strength. (Of course, you have aged slightly since you were injected, which may be apparent when it wears off.)

Gaining an understanding of the entire abdominoplasty process from pre-operative planning to full recovery can play an important role in the success of the surgery. This knowledge can help you feel confident in your decision to undergo body contouring, and help you play an active role in achieving the best possible results and the longest-term satisfaction with your refined midsection.
The chemical solution for superficial peels — also known as light peels or lunchtime peels — is typically alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) or beta hydroxy acid. AHAs are naturally occurring compounds found in papayas, milk, sugar cane and other foods. Healing time for a superficial chemical peel is often between 1 and 7 days. Superficial peels are the most affordable and may range from under $100 to over $200, depending on the provider.
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