The first American plastic surgeon was John Peter Mettauer, who, in 1827, performed the first cleft palate operation with instruments that he designed himself. In 1845, Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach wrote a comprehensive text on rhinoplasty, titled Operative Chirurgie, and introduced the concept of reoperation to improve the cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed nose.
The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to perform simple techniques, such as repairing damaged ears, from around the 1st century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions,[15] some of which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.[16]
One investigation from 2003 tried to decide if Botox infusions under and around the eyes could diminish the presence of wrinkles in these regions. Nineteen female members gotten infusions. The individuals who had them in the lower eyelids and crow’s feet territory will probably report positive outcomes than the individuals who just gotten infusions in their lower eyelids.
British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasties being performed by Indian methods.[13] Reports on Indian rhinoplasty performed by a Kumhar Vaidya were published in the Gentleman's Magazine by 1794.[13] Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods.[13] Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the Western world in the year of 1815.[14] Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western world.[14]
Yes, all chemical peels require some downtime. Light flaking, irritation, and peeling usually occur for a few days after light peels. It can take up to six weeks for skin to return to its normal appearance following a medium chemical peel. Deep chemical peels are closer in nature to a surgical treatment—patients are usually asked to rest their skin for two weeks before they're able to resume normal activities or wear makeup. Skin may remain red in appearance for up to three months.
Your skin is where your beauty routine starts, and even if you don’t wear makeup you can help your face have a natural glow. A chemical peel gives you a chance to remove the damaged top layers of your skin and reveal healthier new skin underneath. When you get a chemical peel, a solution is applied to the areas you want to rejuvenate on your face, neck, or hands.
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Hand surgery is concerned with acute injuries and chronic diseases of the hand and wrist, correction of congenital malformations of the upper extremities, and peripheral nerve problems (such as brachial plexus injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome). Hand surgery is an important part of training in plastic surgery, as well as microsurgery, which is necessary to replant an amputated extremity. The hand surgery field is also practiced by orthopedic surgeons and general surgeons. Scar tissue formation after surgery can be problematic on the delicate hand, causing loss of dexterity and digit function if severe enough. There have been cases of surgery to women's hands in order to correct perceived flaws to create the perfect engagement ring photo.[20]
“Ensure that you take adequate time off from work,” says Taglienti. “For most people, this means two weeks. Granted, everyone heals differently, but if you take a full two weeks to rest after surgery, you will not feel as sore and tired when you return to work. Patients who do not give themselves a chance to heal properly can cause needless tension on the wound, and impede wound healing.”

Deep chemical peels involve a longer procedure and longer recovery time that lasts up to several months in some cases. Patients who want to correct blotches caused by sun exposure or age, minimize coarse wrinkles, or remove a pre-cancerous growth may benefit from a deep peel. There are certain factors which must be taken into consideration when contemplating a deep chemical peel. Darker-skinned patients and individuals with heart problems are not ideal candidates. Potential chemical peel candidates should be aware that the treatment may take an hour or more, and may require sedation. Anyone who decides on this procedure should be prepared for a long, slow recovery period, and should wear sunscreen whenever exposed to sun.
However, abdominoplasty is not considered a weight loss procedure.“One problem with the majority of patients is that they think it’s okay to have a tummy tuck just because they are overweight,” says New York City plastic and cosmetic surgeon Dr. Leonard Grossman. “Being overweight results in the majority of complications associated with tummy tucks.”

The use of Chemical peels is usually seen on the face, the neck, and the hands mostly. These are the areas normally exposed to the sun as well. The Peels once applied may form blisters on the surface, but will peel off automatically. As the name itself suggests, it is made of certain chemicals and there are different types people can find and use, depending on the purpose of the application. There is the short duration and instant type peels the trade would call lunchtime peels and there are also the deeper ones which will work deeper into the skin follicles and produce longer lasting results. The exact chemical used in these types will also vary accordingly. The Chemical Peels are chosen based on the need for a mild or a strong action on the skin.
There are several factors that determine the cost of a chemical peel. The most significant difference in cost is related to the type of chemical peel that is being performed. Superficial peels such as those containing salicylic acid or glycolic acid are typically much cheaper than the stronger medium- and deep-depth chemical peels, like the TCA peel and the phenol-croton oil peel. These stronger peels are often performed under anesthesia, which contributes an added cost, and may take more time to perform and manage after the procedure is complete. However, the results of these stronger peels are usually permanent, whereas a more superficial peel may require several repeat treatments to achieve an adequate result. The severity of the skin issues to be treated, such as the deepness of the wrinkles or the amount of pigmentation changes, will be factors in determining which treatment is right for you. I recommend that you schedule a consultation with a board-certified physician who specializes in facial skin care and can evaluate your particular concerns to recommend the treatment that is most effective for you within your proposed budget. Remember, when it comes to your face, cost is a consideration, but the most important thing is that you find someone who will provide you with safe and effective treatment!
On average, the cost of a chemical peel will depend on where you live, the medical provider you plan on using and the type of chemical peel applied.  With these factors in place, the average session can cost $150 to $400; however, to see desirable results, the average patient, according to our research pays a total of $1,800 to $3,700.  These costs will vary depending on your personal situation since some patients may see results after a few sessions, whereas others may need multiple sessions. Refer to our table below to see what the most popular branded chemical peels will cost per session.  This data was gathered from credible doctor answers we had found online such as this RealSelf.com forum thread.
Depending on the extent of your surgery, you can expect to spend anywhere from three days to a week or more limiting yourself to minimal physical activity. You certainly will not be bed ridden during this time, but you will be expected to avoid activity that is more strenuous than walking very short distances. You will also have to take very special care to avoid placing any strain on your incisions.
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