British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasties being performed by Indian methods.[13] Reports on Indian rhinoplasty performed by a Kumhar Vaidya were published in the Gentleman's Magazine by 1794.[13] Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods.[13] Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the Western world in the year of 1815.[14] Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western world.[14]
Children often face medical issues very different from the experiences of an adult patient. Many birth defects or syndromes present at birth are best treated in childhood, and pediatric plastic surgeons specialize in treating these conditions in children. Conditions commonly treated by pediatric plastic surgeons include craniofacial anomalies, Syndactyly[21] (webbing of the fingers and toes), Polydactyly (excess fingers and toes at birth), cleft lip and palate, and congenital hand deformities.
Chemical Peels range from the Superficial, which will give you gentle exfoliation and can be repeated at frequent intervals, to Medium which will use stronger solutions and achiever greater peeling, to Deep, which as the name suggests will produce more visible results but the potential for complications and side effects with Deep Peels is also much greater.  

After a chemical peel, skin is temporarily more sensitive to the sun, so wear sunscreen every day. It should say "broad-spectrum" on the label, meaning it protects against the sun's UVA and UVB rays. Also, it should be a physical sunscreen and be above SPF 30. Limit your time in the sun, especially between the hours of 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., and wear a wide-brimmed hat.


Some people with a particular type of skin can face issues immediately after taking a Chemical Peels treatment for their skin. Some of them can even see some swelling and breaking of the skin surface that can take a few days to recover fully. Similarly, there are instances of alteration in the colour of the skin after the peel withers off. There have also been reports of scarring on the skin surface following a Chemical Peels treatment. It must, however, be added here that almost all these after effects are of temporary nature and they are generally treated and rectified without causing any permanent damage.
The treatment with Chemical Peels itself does not last very long. Each time the peel is applied, the peel comes off within a few minutes and the treatment itself is done and dusted. But if the overall treatment duration has to be taken into account, then, a week can be safely assumed as the duration of a typical Chemical Peels treatment. And the treatment needs to be repeated after some months for maintaining the skin condition.
All chemical peels remove outer layers of the skin, though how many layers depends on the intensity of the peel. After a healing period, which also varies with the intensity level, skin is left feeling softer and smoother. Superficial issues such as acne or acne scars, fine lines and wrinkles, and hyperpigmentation should be improved, if not completely corrected. And because chemical peels sweep away complexion-dulling dead skin cells, they leave faces with a radiant glow.
In January 2011, the United States Food and Drug Administration released a statement that women with breast implants "may have a very small but increased risk of developing" anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare cancer that can develop around breast implants.  The Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons is closely following developments around this issue.
Deep peels must be performed by a medical doctor and can take 14 to 21 days to heal. Deep peels require special aftercare including antiviral medication, ointments and follow-up visits, according to the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. The chemical solution used for deep peels may be phenol or trichloroacetic acid, which both reach far into the middle layer of your skin and remove damaged skin cells. Phenol chemical peels may require sedation and should only be done on the face, as the skin on the hands and neck is too thin. The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery explains this procedure may only be performed one time on a patient and is not recommended for people with darker skin or freckles, as it can cause hypopigmentation. Deep peels may cost anywhere from $3,500-$5,000—not including the doctor’s fees.

With breast implants, a routine screening mammography and self-examinations for breast cancer will be more difficult. Ask your doctor to help you distinguish the implant from your breast tissue. Symptoms of a ruptured implant may be hard knots or lumps surrounding the implant or in the armpit, change or loss of size or shape of the breast or implant, pain, tingling, swelling, numbness, burning, or hardening. Tell your doctor of these symptoms and remove ruptured implants.


I needed very little convincing before making my way down to the Cadogan Clinic, one of the very best locations in London (might I add) to speak to Nurse Libbie Wallace, a master in her field. After filling in a short consultation form, Nurse Libbie asks me how old I am. After replying 28, she chuckles a little, but continues… I’m not the youngest client she’s had walk through the door, but she does tell me that she would only ever treat those that actually can benefit from the treatment, ‘It’s important that I manage patients expectations’.
Deep peels must be performed by a medical doctor and can take 14 to 21 days to heal. Deep peels require special aftercare including antiviral medication, ointments and follow-up visits, according to the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. The chemical solution used for deep peels may be phenol or trichloroacetic acid, which both reach far into the middle layer of your skin and remove damaged skin cells. Phenol chemical peels may require sedation and should only be done on the face, as the skin on the hands and neck is too thin. The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery explains this procedure may only be performed one time on a patient and is not recommended for people with darker skin or freckles, as it can cause hypopigmentation. Deep peels may cost anywhere from $3,500-$5,000—not including the doctor’s fees.
Chemical peels are cosmetic treatments that can be applied to the face, hands, and neck. They’re used to improve the appearance or feel of the skin. During this procedure, chemical solutions will be applied to the area being treated, which causes the skin to exfoliate and eventually peel off. Once this happens, the new skin underneath is often smoother, appears less wrinkled, and may have less damage.
With breast implants, a routine screening mammography and self-examinations for breast cancer will be more difficult. Ask your doctor to help you distinguish the implant from your breast tissue. Symptoms of a ruptured implant may be hard knots or lumps surrounding the implant or in the armpit, change or loss of size or shape of the breast or implant, pain, tingling, swelling, numbness, burning, or hardening. Tell your doctor of these symptoms and remove ruptured implants.

For example, you can make a homemade anti-aging serum— using jojoba oil, pomegranate seed oil, rosehip oil, and essential oils like lavender or frankincense — that richly hydrates your skin as well as provides antioxidant protection. Products that contain antioxidants and vitamins for your skin — like vitamins E, A and C —are also great for reducing sun damage and improving the appearance of skin.
Cosmetic surgery is a voluntary or elective surgery that is performed on normal parts of the body with the only purpose of improving a person’s appearance and/or removing signs of aging. In 2014, nearly 16 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States alone.[22] The number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United States has almost doubled since the start of the century. 92% of cosmetic procedures were performed on women in 2014, up from 88% in 2001.[23] Nearly 12 million cosmetic procedures were performed in 2007, with the five most common surgeries being breast augmentation, liposuction, breast reduction, eyelid surgery and abdominoplasty. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery looks at the statistics for 34 different cosmetic procedures. Nineteen of the procedures are surgical, such as rhinoplasty or facelift. The nonsurgical procedures include Botox and laser hair removal. In 2010, their survey revealed that there were 9,336,814 total procedures in the United States. Of those, 1,622,290 procedures were surgical (p. 5). They also found that a large majority, 81%, of the procedures were done on Caucasian people (p. 12).[24] The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) estimates that more than 333,000 cosmetic procedures were performed on patients 18 years of age or younger in the US in 2005 compared to approx. 14,000 in 1996. This is significant because it encourages younger people to continue these procedures later in life.[25] The increased use of cosmetic procedures crosses racial and ethnic lines in the U.S., with increases seen among African-Americans, Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans as well as Caucasian Americans. In Europe, the second largest market for cosmetic procedures, cosmetic surgery is a $2.2 billion business.[26] Of 1191 UK newspaper articles, 89% used the term ‘plastic surgery’ in the context of cosmetic surgery. This is significant as it shows the frequency in which the western world portrays cosmetic surgery.[27] In Asia, cosmetic surgery has become more popular, and countries such as China and India have become Asia's biggest cosmetic surgery markets.[28] South Korea is also rising in popularity due to their expertise in facial bone surgeries. The first publication by a team of South Korean surgeons on facial bone contouring surgeries was published illustrating various surgery methods used for facial bone contouring surgeries.[29]

During World War I he worked as a medical minder with the Royal Army Medical Corps. After working with the renowned French oral and maxillofacial surgeon Hippolyte Morestin on skin graft, he persuaded the army's chief surgeon, Arbuthnot-Lane, to establish a facial injury ward at the Cambridge Military Hospital, Aldershot, later upgraded to a new hospital for facial repairs at Sidcup in 1917. There Gillies and his colleagues developed many techniques of plastic surgery; more than 11,000 operations were performed on more than 5,000 men (mostly soldiers with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds).[citation needed]After the war, Gillies developed a private practice with Rainsford Mowlem, including many famous patients, and travelled extensively to promote his advanced techniques worldwide.

Gaining an understanding of the entire abdominoplasty process from pre-operative planning to full recovery can play an important role in the success of the surgery. This knowledge can help you feel confident in your decision to undergo body contouring, and help you play an active role in achieving the best possible results and the longest-term satisfaction with your refined midsection.
The average chemical peel can cost $500–$700 for each treatment, but prices range from $150 for a mild peel up to several thousand dollars for a series of deep peels. (10) While this might seem like a steep cost for good-looking skin, chemical peels are still less expensive than superficial fractional-laser treatments, which can run up to $1,000 a session and usually require multiple treatments.

Most SkinMedica® products are intended to meet the FDA’s definition of a cosmetic product, an article applied to the human body to cleanse, beautify, promote attractiveness, and alter appearances. These SkinMedica® products are not intended to be drug products that diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or condition. These products have not been approved by the FDA, and the statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.


Common side effects are bruising and swelling. Rarely, there is “serum sickness,” which manifests as flu-like symptoms that subside in a few hours, says Mulholland. “A dreaded complication is that the Botox travels through fatty tissues to muscles it wasn’t intended to block — like a muscle of the eyelid, which leads to ptosis (droopy eye), or the muscles that move the eyeball, leading to double vision.” He says these happen to less than one per cent of patients and go away within two weeks. The Botox Cosmetic website states asthma symptoms and inability to swallow have also been reported.
Chemical peel cost varies widely, depending on whether you get a light, medium, or deep peel. Light peels generally average about $150 to $400, but medical-grade peels performed in a physicians office can run as much as $6,000. If you're looking to save money on a light- or medium-grade peel, be sure to check Groupon to find great deals on chemical peels near you.
Typically administered as a facial peel, a chemical peel enhances and smoothes the texture of the skin. It is an effective treatment for facial blemishes, wrinkles, and uneven skin pigmentation.  They exfoliate the outer layers of dead skin, revealing a new skin layer with improved tone, texture, and color. In addition to full facial rejuvenation, certain types of skin peels can also be used for spot treatments and as a way to remove stretch marks or rejuvenate skin elsewhere on the body. 

During the procedure, you may experience sensations of pulling, tugging, mild pinching, intense cold, tingling, stinging, aching, and cramping at the treatment site. These sensations subside as the area becomes numb. Following the procedure, typical side effects include temporary redness, swelling, blanching, bruising, firmness, tingling, stinging, tenderness, cramping, aching, itching, or skin sensitivity, and sensation of fullness in the back of the throat after a submental area treatment. Rare side effects may also occur. The CoolSculpting® procedure is not for everyone. You should not have the CoolSculpting® procedure if you suffer from cryoglobulinemia, cold agglutinin disease, or paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. The CoolSculpting® procedure is not a treatment for obesity. Ask your doctor if CoolSculpting® is right for you. To learn more about what to expect, visit coolsculpting.com. 

Some people with a particular type of skin can face issues immediately after taking a Chemical Peels treatment for their skin. Some of them can even see some swelling and breaking of the skin surface that can take a few days to recover fully. Similarly, there are instances of alteration in the colour of the skin after the peel withers off. There have also been reports of scarring on the skin surface following a Chemical Peels treatment. It must, however, be added here that almost all these after effects are of temporary nature and they are generally treated and rectified without causing any permanent damage. 

On average, the cost of a chemical peel will depend on where you live, the medical provider you plan on using and the type of chemical peel applied.  With these factors in place, the average session can cost $150 to $400; however, to see desirable results, the average patient, according to our research pays a total of $1,800 to $3,700.  These costs will vary depending on your personal situation since some patients may see results after a few sessions, whereas others may need multiple sessions. Refer to our table below to see what the most popular branded chemical peels will cost per session.  This data was gathered from credible doctor answers we had found online such as this RealSelf.com forum thread.
It’s a poison: a purified protein called botulinum toxin type A derived from bacteria. It temporarily relaxes muscle areas by blocking nerve impulses that trigger contractions, softening wrinkles and modifying expression. In therapeutic treatment it’s used for cerebral palsy and conditions such as excessive sweating. Although Botox has been used off-label since the 1990s in North America, Health Canada only approved it in 2001 for treating the two vertical lines between the brows (the ‘elevens’) and in 2005 for forehead wrinkles and crow’s feet.
If, for example, the patient wishes to achieve further weight loss, we must consider whether the results of abdominoplasty might be more flattering once the patient's goal has been met. On the other hand, we must consider the likelihood that the patient will be able to maintain their ideal weight. By discussing the patient's lifestyle and goals in great detail, we can determine whether the planned extent of surgery will provide results that will be compatible with the patient's lifestyle for the long run.

Year after year, Botox ranks as the number one minimally invasive cosmetic procedure, according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (which represents Canada’s Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons). In 2009, 4.8 million Botox cosmetic procedures were done in the U.S. That’s down four per cent from 2008, but still ahead of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers (such as Juvéderm and Restylane, which showed a seven per cent upswing). Botox also topped non-surgical procedures globally in survey results released in August by the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.
You should expect to visit your surgeon the day after surgery to fully assess your condition. During this appointment, I usually fit the patient with their support garment, which will help to prevent the formation of blood clots. After the first follow-up, I schedule weekly visits. These continue depending upon the patient's extent of treatment, as well as his or her risk factors in developing blood clots and other complications.

The best reaction came from my mum, who is always honest. She isn’t afraid to tell me I look tired, pale or spotty, but when I saw her after my treatment she couldn’t have been more complimentary. After confiding in her that I had botox she yelped and said, ‘Wow you did really need it, now you look so fresh, like you’ve had a month of great sleep’. Thanks mum.
Do not use LATISSE® if you are allergic to one of its ingredients. If you use/used prescription products for eye pressure problems, use LATISSE® under doctor care. May cause brown darkening of the colored part of the eye which is likely permanent. LATISSE® may cause eyelid skin darkening which may be reversible. Only apply at base of upper lashes. DO NOT APPLY to lower lid. Hair may grow outside the treatment area. If you have eye problems/surgery, consult your doctor. Common side effects include itchy and red eyes. If discontinued, lashes gradually return to previous appearance.

Moderate peels require longer healing time, 7 to 14 days, due to more intensive blistering and peeling. Moderate peels are usually done with glycolic acid, trichloroacetic acid, or a combination of acids that reach both the outer and middle layers of your skin. Moderate peels may cost anywhere from under $200 to over $600, depending on the provider.

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